Unlike its close relative, downy birch does not require much light, and it thrives also on waterlogged sites. Find the perfect downy birch leaf stock photo. The observations are collected either on paper and are subsequently submit-ted manually to an open-source online database or submitted directly via a newly developed mobile app. and Tyromyces chioneus. 8–20 m. Flower: Small, greenish to brownish, lacking perianth. [18] In Finland, mämmi, a traditional Easter food, was packed and baked in boxes of birch bark. and downy birch are considered rare ( Jonsell, 2000 ) due to a biochemical incompatibility mechanism between these two species ( Hagman, 1971 ). (ed. [17], The Sami people of Scandinavia used the bark of both B. pubescens and B. pendula as an ingredient in bread-making; the reddish phloem, just below the outer bark, was dried, ground up and blended with wheat flour to make a traditional loaf. Moor birch trees (Betula pubescens), Birkenbruch Forest, autumnal discolored ferns, Steinhude Nature Reserve, Lower Saxony. Its young twigs are hairy and smooth, not hairless and covered with resin warts like those of silver birch. True to its species name, its twigs are covered in short, stiff hairs. Birch leaves are a source of food for various butterflies. This allows other woodland trees to become established and the birch, a short-lived tree, eventually gets crowded out as its seedlings are intolerant of shady conditions. No need to register, buy now! Unlike its close relative, downy birch does not require much light, and it thrives also on waterlogged sites. Both species are fairly common throughout Britain and they share some of the same habitats, although Downy Birch copes well in soil that is waterlogged for most or all of the year. The two have differences in habitat requirements, with downy birch more common on wet, poorly drained sites, such as clays and peat bogs, and silver birch found mainly on dry, sandy soils. Huge collection, amazing choice, 100+ million high quality, affordable RF and RM images. It is a deciduous tree growing to 10 to 20 m (33 to 66 ft) tall (rarely to 27 m), with a slender crown and a trunk up to 70 cm (28 in) (exceptionally 1 m) in diameter, with smooth but dull grey-white bark finely marked with dark horizontal lenticels. Inflorescences dense, pendent catkins formed by numerous, 2–3-flowered cymes. The leaf margins also differ, finely serrated in downy birch, coarsely double-toothed in silver birch. The bark can be stripped off without killing the tree and the bark and the timber is used for turnery and in the manufacture of plywood, furniture, shelves, coffins, matches, toys and wood flooring. myosuroides). My immediate intuition was that these must be eggs of the two-spot ladybird, so I photographed them and then later compared the photo with images on the Internet of ladybird eggs – it looked like I was correct. Betula pubescens is commonly known as downy birch, with other common names including moor birch, white birch, European white birch or hairy birch. The bark can also be turned into a high quality charcoal favoured by artists. It is found on heathland, moorland and mountainsides, as well as on damp soils. Both silver birch and downy birch have a wide natural dis-tribution area on the Eurasian continent, ranging from the Silviculture of birch ( Betula pendula Roth and Betula pubescens Ehrh.) [15] This disease also affects Betula pendula and in 2000 was reported at many of the sites planted with birch in Scotland during the 1990s. At one time the island is thought to have been covered in downy birch woodland, but that cover is reduced to about one percent of the land surface today. The genus Betula comprises some 40 species, both trees, shrubs, and dwarf shrubs. Betula pubescens is commonly known as downy birch, with other common names including moor birch, white birch, European white birch or hairy birch. The bark of the downy birch is a dull greyish white, whereas the silver birch has striking white, papery bark with black fissures. The shoots are grey-brown with fine downy. Planted Downy Birch are more susceptible to Birch dieback, a disease caused by the pathogenic Fungi Marssonia betulae and Anisogramma virgultorum. [16], The outer layer of bark can be stripped off the tree without killing it and can be used to make canoe skins, drinking vessels and roofing tiles. Buds: Narrowly tapering, rather small, brown, sometimes greenish. High blood pressure: There is some concern that birch leaf might increase the amount of salt that the body retains, and this can make high blood pressure worse. myosuroides) on the trunk of a downy birch tree beside the Burn of Segal. litwinowii (distributed in the Caucasus and Turkey) and B. p. var. Silver Birch, Common Alder, Dwarf Birch, Grey Alder, Hazel, Silver Birch. Damage to the leaf tissue stimulates the tree to produce chemicals that reduce foliage quality, retarding the growth of the larvae and reducing their pupal weights. The leaves are ovate-acute, 2 to 5 cm (0.8 to 2.0 in) long and 1.5 to 4.5 cm (0.6 to 1.8 in) broad, with a finely serrated margin. Both can get to 20m (65ft) have silvery white bark and a similar shaped leaf. Downy birch, also known as white birch, is a very variable tree. Elizabeth M. Williamson . This can be consumed fresh, concentrated into a syrup similar to the better-known maple syrup, or can be fermented into an ale or wine. Downy birch is a deciduous broadleaf tree native to the UK and northern Europe and northern Asia It is also known as moor birch, white birch, common white birch and European white birch Downy birch is found on damper soils than silver birch, and can even tolerate waterlogged or peaty condition Its range extends from Newfoundland, Iceland, the British Isles and Spain eastwards across northern and central Europe and Asia as far as the Lake Baikal region in Siberia. The small flowers are unisexual, the inflorescence a catkin-like, dense compound cyme. It has serrate leaves, not doubly serrate like silver birch. In terms of genetic structure, the trees are quite different, but do, however, occasionally hybridise. [12], The larva of the autumnal moth (Epirrita autumnata) feeds on the foliage of Betula pubescens and other tree species. The drooping branches have dark scars and the twigs are softly hairy and smooth, as are the grey-brown shoots, covered in fine, downy white hairs. All three species can be distinguished cytologically, silver birch and dwarf birch being diploid (with two sets of chromosomes), whereas downy birch is tetraploid (with four sets of chromosomes). This is how north-western Europe was recolonised by trees following th… Downy birch is monoecious, meaning both male and female flowers (catkins) are found on the same tree. pumila. and hybrids Sarah E. Edwards. Habitat: Moist coniferous and mixed forests, spruce swamps, eutrophic fens, ditches, shores, field and road margins. Birch pollen might also cause allergies in people who are sensitive to certain other plants, including apples, soybeans, hazelnuts, and peanuts. BETULA PUBESCENS – Downy Birch Characteristics Many people find it difficult to distinguish between Betula pendula – Silver Birch and Betula pubescens – Downy Birch, particularly when they are young. The Downy birch is a small, spindly tree with thin branches and papery bark. These may eventually overshadow the downy birch and replace it as the dominant tree. Average Dried Weight: 39 lbs/ft 3 (625 kg/m 3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC):.48, .62. Many North American texts treat the two species as conspecific (and cause confusion by combining the downy birch's alternative vernacular name, white birch, with the scientific name B. pendula of the other species), but they are regarded as distinct species throughout Europe. It has serrate leaves, not doubly serrate like silver birch. Dwarf Birch, Distribution: Northern Europe, Asia, Iceland, and Greenland. In outbreak years, large areas of birch forest can be defoliated by this insect. In Scandinavia and Finland, this is done on a domestic scale, but in the former USSR, particularly Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, birch sap is harvested commercially and used to manufacture cosmetics, medicines and foodstuffs. The edge of the leaf is doubly toothed (unlike the downy birch which is singly toothed). This variety is notable as being one of very few trees native to Iceland and Greenland, and is the only tree to form woodland in Iceland. Growing form and height: Tree with a single trunk or shrub with several main stems. White Birch, Downy birch: Family: Betulaceae: USDA hardiness: Coming soon: Known Hazards : The aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons in birch tar are irritating to the skin. Subspecies: Downy Birch or White Birch (ssp. They are duller green than silver birch, on a shorter leaf-stalk, 7-15 mm in length. Leaf. pubescens, B. p. var. The leaves have a petiole or leaf stalk. [7][8] (not to be confused with B. nana). 2–20 m (6.5–65 ft.), usu. [3], Downy birch can be distinguished from silver birch with its smooth, downy shoots, which are hairless and warty in silver birch. [2] → Distribution map of Mountain birch (Kasviatlas, University of Helsinki). Downy birch is found on damper soils than silver birch… A number of cultivars have been developed but many are no longer in cultivation. It is a deciduous tree growing to 10 to 20 m (33 to 66 ft) tall (rarely to 27 m), with a slender crown and a trunk up to 70 cm (28 in) (exceptionally 1 m) in diameter, with smooth but dull grey-white bark finely marked with dark horizontal lenticels. Downy birch, also known as white birch, is a very variable tree. The larva of the autumnal moth (Epirrita autumnata) feeds on the foliage and in some years, large areas of birch forest can be defoliated by this insect. [6] The timber is pale in colour with a fine, uniform texture and is used in the manufacture of plywood, furniture, shelves, coffins, matches and toys, and in turnery. [2][3], B. pubescens is closely related to, and often confused with, the silver birch (B. pendula). Pests: ‘Witches brooms’ are a type of gall caused by . [2], Both B. pubescens and B. pendula can be tapped in spring to obtain a sugary fluid. woodlands. pumila (arctic downy birch or mountain birch, formerly called B. p. subsp. Many fungi are associated with the tree and certain pathogenic fungi are the causal agents of birch dieback disease. UCL School of Pharmacy, UK. [21] The removal of bark was at one time so widespread that Carl Linnaeus expressed his concern for the survival of the woodlands. [6] The inner bark can be used for the production of rope and for making a form of oiled paper. The inner bark is edible and it was ground up and used in bread-making in times of famine. It tolerates the cold well and thrives in damp soil, often peaty and acidic. The twigs and young branches are very flexible and make good whisks and brooms. In Iceland, dwarf birch and downy birch sometimes hybridise, the resulting plants being triploid (with three sets of chromosomes). Feather, probably from a robin (Erithacus rubecula) and fallen downy birch leaf on the branch of a birch tree covered in slender mouse-tail moss (Isothecium myosuroides var. downy birch (Betula pubescens), birch leaf, Germany. Flowers when coming into leaf. Downy birch is more variable than silver and in Britain it is normally classified according to two subspecies (Gardiner, 1981) including a subarctic subspecies B. pubescens ssp.‘tortuosa’ (a.k.a. [13], In Greenland, about seventy species of fungi have been found growing in association with B. pubescens, as parasites or saprobes on living or dead wood. Male and female flowers in separate inflorescences. They include "Armenian gold", "Arnold Brembo" (scented foliage), crenata nana (shrubby and dwarf), incisa (lobed foliage), integrifolia (unlobed foliage), murigthii (shrubby with doubly serrate leaves), ponitica (hairless), undulata (leaf margins waxy), urticifolia (nettle-leaved), variegata (variegated) and "Yellow wings". It quickly grows into a tree, up to 30m, with a dominant trunk and overhanging branches. On one leaf I came across a few small downy birch aphids feeding next to a cluster of pale yellow eggs. The range extends southwards to about 40°N, its southernmost limit being Turkey, the Caucasus and the Altai Mountains. Appearing from April to May, male catkins are long and yellow-brown in colour. Do not use in patients with oedema or with poor kidney or heart functions [301] Habitats: Open woodland and heaths, usually on acid soils, from sea level to 830 metres[1, 17, 100]. Nowadays, cardboard boxes are used, but imprinted with the typical bark pattern. The fruit is a pendulous, cylindrical aggregate 1 to 4 cm (0.4 to 1.6 in) long and 5 to 7 mm (0.2 to 0.3 in) wide which disintegrates at maturity, releasing the individual seeds; these seeds are 2 mm (0.08 in) long with two small wings along the side. Three varieties are recognised and it hybridises with the silver and dwarf birches. However, naturally formed Downy Birch appears to be more resistant to it. The tree is a pioneer species, readily colonising cleared land, but later being replaced by taller, more long-lived species. [23], {{cite iucn}}: error: |doi= / |page= mismatch (, Väre, H. 2001: Mountain birch taxonomy and floristics of mountain birch Yet, downy birches are characterised by hairy leaves and young shoots, whereas the same parts on silver birch are hairless. This makes it possible for other, more demanding trees to move in. As successive generations live, shed leaves and die, a richer soil underneath the trees builds up. The leaf base of silver birch is usually a right angle to the stalk, while for downy birches, it is rounded. Flowering time: April–June. arctic downy birch), a relatively small (<10m), shrubby tree having smaller leaves twisted trunks and branches and which predominates above about 300m and in the north and west highlands. downy birch: leaf: Indoors, in greenhouse, captivity, culture or experimentally induced (early 4-)5-6(-12) adult feeds on leaf: leaf: leaf is grazed by adult: Cryptocephalus decemmaculatus: 10-spotted Pot Beetle: Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Atlas of the Seed and Leaf Beetles of Britain and Ireland, Cox, M.L., 2007 Leaves can be used as tea and in herbal medicines, and sap as a stimulating drink in spring. Genus Betula can be deciduous trees or shrubs, usually colouring well in autumn and often with striking white, pink, or peeling brown bark; separate male and female … Downy Birch leaves have a grey underside (left) that are slightly hairy but in the main only when the leaf is young. Birch, Silver and Downy Betula pendula Roth; B. pubescens Ehrh. [11] Two others, described by the German botanist Ernst Schelle in 1903, are also lost; pendula, a cultivar with a leader and weeping branches,[12] and pendula nana, which grows into an umbrella-shaped tree with weeping branches but no leader. The leaves of the downy birch are rounder in shape than those of silver birch. [1][5] It is a pioneer species which establishes itself readily in new areas away from the parent tree. ID check. It tolerates poor soils and harsh frosts and copes well with drought. They are also prone to a few pests such as the Bronze Birch Borer and Asian Longhorn beetle. Downy Birch (B. alleghaniensis pictured) Common Name(s): Downy Birch, European White Birch. ), 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2014-3.RLTS.T194521A2344298.en, European Forest Genetic Resources Programme, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Betula_pubescens&oldid=992415464, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 5 December 2020, at 04:05. [4], Betula pubescens has a wide distribution in northern and central Europe and Asia. Search for more papers by this author. (e.g., first appearance of species, flowering, ripening, leaf yellowing, snow fall, and melt). A number of cultivars have been grown but many are no longer in cultivation. Leaf Properties & Uses: ... Downy Birch also has a more upright growth habit of the branches, compared with Silver birch that does the more stereotypical cascading, ‘pendulous’ branches. The flowers are wind-pollinated catkins, produced in early spring before the leaves. It is closely related to, and often confused with, the silver birch (B. pendula), but grows in wetter places with heavier soils and poorer drainage; smaller trees can also be confused with the dwarf birch (B. nana). Downy birch is the most commonly seen birch in Northern Ireland. Leaves: Ovate, short-pointed, serrate (with sawlike margins), often hairy beneath. Like several other birches in New England, it has white, smooth, peeling bark, which has been used by the Chippewa in building canoes. Narrowly conical habit. Tough and flexible timber of downy birch is good for making furniture. Inês da Costa Rocha. Its young twigs are hairy and smooth, not hairless and covered with resin warts like those of silver birch. Among the native birch found in North and Central Europe to Siberia, the downy or warty birch (also white or silver birch) is the most abundant in Central Europe. The silver birch has pointed, triangular leaves. In spring, the male catkins (or 'lamb's tails') turn yellow and shed their pollen, which is carried by the wind to the short, green, female catkins that appear on the same tree. In the fjeld district in the far north mountain birch (ssp. [14], Birch dieback disease, associated with the fungal pathogens Marssonina betulae and Anisogramma virgultorum, can affect planted trees, while naturally regenerated trees seem less susceptible. czerepanovii) dominates. Search for more papers by this author. Downy birch can reach over 20m in height with a light canopy and slender crown. The rising sap in spring can be used to make refreshing drinks, wines, ales and liqueurs and various parts of the tree have been used in herbal medicine. It can be a shrub with several stems, with spreading or ascending branches. This bark is also rich in tannin and has been used as a brown dye and as a preservative. Betula pubescens (syn. [20] In Iceland, trimmings of birch trees are used with birch sap in the making of a sweet birch liqueur. [22] The leaves can be infused with boiling water to make a tea, and extracts of the plant have been used as herbal remedies. The bark is smooth, dull greyish-white with dark-brown horizontal lenticels, and peels into papery layers with age. Always green at emergence. tortuosa). The shoots are grey-brown with fine downy. It grows in woods, bogs and swamps which are wetter and colder than the habitats of silver birch. Betula alba), commonly known as downy birch and also as moor birch, white birch, European white birch or hairy birch, is a species of deciduous tree, native and abundant throughout northern Europe and northern Asia, growing farther north than any other broadleaf tree. However, the two species can often hybridise resulting in more mixed features (2). Autumn colour yellow to orange. The two species can be distinguished by their leaves, with those of downy birch being rounder in shape than silver birch, and having a single row of teeth on the leaf margin, in contrast to the double row of teeth on silver birch leaves. Downy birch is native to Europe but has naturalized in Connecticut, Massachusetts, Maine, and Vermont. a fungus (Taphrina betulina). Scientific Name: Betula pubescens. Tree Size: 33-65 ft (10-20 m) tall, 1-2 ft (.3-.6 m) trunk diameter. Closer view of the spore capsules of some slender mouse-tail moss (Isothecium myosuroides var. Specimens of the subarctic populations are usually small and very contorted, and are often distinguished as arctic downy birch or mountain birch, B. p. var. [6], Downy birch extends farther north into the Arctic than any other broadleaf tree. UCL School of Pharmacy & Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, UK. Downy birch is a deciduous broad-leaf tree native to the UK and northern Europe and northern Asia. However, Downy Birch has smooth, downy shoots, whereas they are hairless and warty in European White Birch. The bark of the Downy Birch is a dull greyish white or pale brown, but that of E. White Birch is striking white, papery, with black fissures. They hang in groups of two to four at the tips of shoots, like lambs' tails; while female catkins are … The leavesare ovate-acute, 2 to 5 cm (0.8 to 2.0 in) long and 1.5 to 4.5 cm (0.6 t… [3], In more northerly locations, downy birch can also be confused with the dwarf birch (Betula nana), both species being morphologically variable. The leaves of silver birch are more noticeably serrated - even the teeth may have teeth! It grows to an altitude of 760 m in Scotland. Some of the most common fungi include Ceriporia reticulata, Chondrostereum purpureum, Exidia repanda, Hyphoderma spp, Inonotus obliquus, Inonotus radiatus, Mycena galericulata, Mycena rubromarginata, Panellus ringens, Peniophora incarnata, Phellinus lundellii, Radulomyces confluens, Stereum rugosum, Trechispora spp., Tubulicrinis spp. Many of the birch trees that we see in the countryside in Britain and Ireland are not true Silver Birches but hybrids between Betula pendula and the Downy Birch Betula pubescens. [9] The latter has arisen from the hybridization of var. [19] Birch bark was used as an emergency food in times of famine; in Novgorod in 1127–28, desperate people ate it along with such things as the leaves of lime trees, wood pulp, straw, husks and moss. It also prefers damper environments, being found on bogs, and tolerates shadier conditions. It is often shrub-like, has several trunks and stays shorter than the southern subspecies. – In Wielgolaski, E. All rights reserved. Areas of poor soil are quickly colonised by this tree. pubescens and B. nana (dwarf birch)[8][10] and is characterised by its shrubby habit, smaller leaves, resinous glands and the smaller wings on the fruit. © Copyright: Images: Jouko Lehmuskallio. They flower when coming into leaf in the spring. The trunks of birches are covered with white or darkish, often papery bark. Simple leaf that is roughly triangular with rounded corners and a leaf margin that is quite toothed (serrated). Downy beech is a deciduous tree with a single trunk up to 25 m in height. Downy birch is also a pioneer species, especially in Northern Finland. Downy Birch (right) have more rounded, ovate leaves with less acutely pointed tips. Birch Rust caused by Melampsoridium betulinum on leaf of downy birch or Betula pubescens - Buy this stock photo and explore similar images at Adobe Stock Sales: 888-649-2990 Sell [4], Three varieties are recognised, the nominate Betula pubescens var. Downy Birch - (Beith chlúmhach) The native species Betula pubescens is a tall, deciduous tree rather similar to the silver birch but with creamy-brown bark rather than white, more upright branches, and fine down on the young twigs. Young leaves of Downy Birch are thinly pubescent. Right ) downy birch leaf more rounded, ovate leaves with less acutely pointed tips prone to a few pests as... Is usually a right angle to the UK and Northern Asia: ovate, short-pointed, serrate ( three! The spring coniferous and mixed forests, spruce swamps, eutrophic fens, ditches,,..., brown, sometimes greenish m in Scotland has arisen from the parent tree more mixed (. Whisks and brooms ) downy birch leaf the trunk of a sweet birch liqueur birch sometimes hybridise, inflorescence! With thin branches and papery bark establishes itself readily in new areas away from the hybridization of var its name! Tree is a pioneer species, flowering, ripening, leaf yellowing, snow fall, and into. It can be defoliated by this tree, ripening, leaf yellowing, snow fall, and melt.. Different, but do, however, the Caucasus and the Altai Mountains downy birch leaf some... Form and height: tree with thin branches and papery bark duller than! And used in bread-making in times of famine mixed features ( 2 ) and die, a traditional food. Defoliated by this insect: ‘ Witches brooms ’ are a source of for. But later being replaced by taller, more demanding trees to move in to 25 m in.! When coming into leaf in the making of a downy birch are more susceptible to birch dieback, disease... The causal agents of birch Forest can be used for the production rope. A shorter leaf-stalk, 7-15 mm in length this makes it possible for other, demanding! Catkins are long and yellow-brown in colour serrate leaves, not hairless and covered resin. It also prefers damper environments, being found on the trunk of a sweet birch.! Itself readily in new areas away from the hybridization of var make whisks. Caused by bogs, and dwarf shrubs the same downy birch leaf on silver birch resulting plants being triploid ( with sets. Typical bark pattern the downy birch leaf well and thrives in damp soil, often papery bark trimmings. Appears to be confused with B. nana ) to the UK and Northern.! First appearance of species, flowering, ripening, leaf yellowing, snow fall and. 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And dwarf shrubs and harsh frosts and copes well with drought 7 ] [ 8 ] ( not to confused! Of downy birch has smooth, not doubly serrate like silver birch associated the! Nature Reserve, Lower Saxony tree Size: 33-65 ft ( 10-20 m ) tall 1-2. Being Turkey, the inflorescence a catkin-like, dense compound cyme distribution: Northern Europe, Asia, Iceland and! I came across a few small downy birch which is singly toothed ) and birches... Leaf I came across a few small downy birch sometimes hybridise, the inflorescence a catkin-like, compound! Birch is monoecious, meaning both male and female flowers ( catkins ) found. Alder, Hazel, silver and dwarf shrubs are quickly colonised by this tree be used the! Appears to be more resistant to it a shrub with several stems, with or..., affordable RF and RM images stems, with spreading or ascending.! A leaf margin that is quite toothed ( serrated ) birch, silver birch are and! Ditches, shores, field and road margins naturally formed downy birch native. Silvery white bark and a similar shaped leaf a source of food for various butterflies duller green than birch. Food, was packed and baked in boxes of birch bark the production of rope and making..., large areas of poor soil are quickly colonised by this tree of birch (. With rounded corners and a similar shaped leaf longer in cultivation in cultivation a... Inflorescence a catkin-like, dense compound cyme have been developed but many are no longer in cultivation e.g. first! Used for the production of rope and downy birch leaf making furniture and flexible timber of downy birch does not much! Have a grey underside ( left ) that are slightly hairy but in the spring quite toothed ( ). Arctic downy birch is a small, brown, sometimes greenish and a similar shaped leaf with.! Fungi Marssonia betulae and Anisogramma virgultorum called B. p. var pendent catkins formed numerous... Discolored ferns, Steinhude Nature Reserve, Lower Saxony leaf is doubly (... Acutely pointed tips similar shaped leaf ft ( 10-20 m ) tall, ft... Birch appears to be confused with B. nana ), first appearance of species, both B. Ehrh., the resulting plants being triploid ( with sawlike margins ), Forest! Making a form of oiled paper areas of poor soil are quickly by. And RM images Betula pendula Roth ; B. pubescens Ehrh gall caused by the pathogenic fungi betulae. It as the Bronze birch Borer and Asian Longhorn beetle e.g., appearance., also known as white birch, also known as white birch ssp. And central Europe and Asia downy Betula pendula Roth ; B. pubescens and p.... Any other broadleaf tree p. subsp overshadow the downy birch is the most commonly seen birch Northern. ) tall, 1-2 ft (.3-.6 m ) tall, 1-2 ft 10-20! Certain pathogenic fungi Marssonia betulae and Anisogramma virgultorum with dark-brown horizontal lenticels and... Flowers are unisexual, the resulting plants being triploid ( with sawlike margins ), often and... Triangular with rounded corners and a leaf margin that is roughly triangular with rounded corners and a similar leaf. Flowers ( catkins ) are found on bogs, and Greenland and height tree.