https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7793.1998.181bi.x. Toluene toxicity refers to the harmful effects caused by toluene on the body. Correspondence to Metrics … Subtle acute effects, however, were found just below and above the ACGIH TLV of 100 ppm toluene, supporting the position that the guideline be lowered since the biological threshold of behavioural effects may be comparable with the TLV. ��k��D���ܬ����4l��C��&���q��n����n�n~z��k���2�k�&��`���I�nt9�aBs� ��������2�2�H�:���ص8�{m������v�ۍ=:��+��]G8j*ʛH8 X��%�� CAS  Higher concentrations produced effects similar to the 200-ppm exposure; however, the effects were more pronounced and … Exposure to higher concentrations leads to clouding or loss of consciousness. Exp Transl Stroke Med 3(1):4, Article  In one case, a person who had ingested toluene died following “a severe depression of the [central nervous system],” and showed signs of tubular kidney necrosis and swollen liver. Mol Pharmacol 57:1199–1205, PubMed  CAS  Treatment with GABA agonists such as benzodiazepines provide some relief from toluene-induced tremor and ataxia. Neurotoxicol Teratol 32:313–328. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 74:285–288. h�bbd``b`z$�A�^ ��Ī���� �$�ĺb9�X ��]"� � @�!H�mPS\cd��e`�&���� �? Toluene is not stored in the body. h��Zmo��+��F�=� �(�]�i`�I��}�HG�,ҹ��}�g�ܻ[ɍ�iZ#�q�2>�̐��5��Ť`$F���ٙ�PY�Iو�-Fj��j�H6��|5YPV1��b,&{S�8�JgM��ڀ��Ԍ�r6��+(k6_|�8z�h�rs�O�����������.N.O�.���ۣG�'��ݛ�O/./�x��}d��룟�O���m�O����O�����7�W���/�Y?3۫��w�o_����x��n'k#������b��R��,�\��9{��+vC����Ѧ5�5H�i��|���$�����_�O��!�d�7Ov ������%�!zqq��^��o��mU��f�n��뇓�����=^_\������Y�ڮ��N�]�=��8�n�}�Rƾ��������a}�a�'�������k�����Kt����� Scand J Work Environ Health 11:271–280. Br J Pharmacol 137:375–383. J Physiol 587:5831–5842, Cruz SL, Mirshahi T, Thomas B et al (1998) Effects of the abused solvent toluene on recombinant N-methyl-d-aspartate and non-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Google Scholar, van Tilborg, Hulstijn W (2010) Implicit motor learning in patients with Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease: differences in learning abilities? The neurotoxic effects of long-term use (in particular repeated withdrawals) of toluene may cause postural tremors by downregulating GABA receptors within the cerebellar cortex. First, toluene induced its own metabolism, as shown by the increase in PROD activity in livers of rats exposed for longer than 6 h The evidence suggests that inhaling toluene at 100 ppmover seven hours can cause slight impair-ments in vigilance, manual dexterity, and, perhaps, in visual memory.Theobjective ofthe present study was to determine whether these acute effects would On the behavioural level, toluene did not alter performance of the motor learning task. https://doi.org/10.1136/jnnp.2004.051334, Di Lazzaro V, Pilato F, Dileone M et al (2005b) Dissociated effects of diazepam and lorazepam on short-latency afferent inhibition. CAS  With higher levels of exposure, unconsciousness, coma, and death may occur. https://doi.org/10.1097/00004691-200208000-00005, Article  J Physiol 527:633–639. Central nervous effects of low-dose exposure to neurotoxic substances in the work environment. %%EOF In high doses, toluene has effects similar to other volatile substances such as psychomotor damage, excitation in locomotor activities and later inhibition, loss of the standing up reflex, and sedation [ 7 – 9 Ergonomics 26:1081–1087. Furthermore, its acute neurophysiological effects remain poorly understood in humans. Google Scholar, Bowen SE, Wiley JL, Jones HE, Balster RL (1999) Phencyclidine- and diazepam-like discriminative stimulus effects of inhalants in mice. Neurology 51:1320–1324. A significant interaction was observed between toluene and block for HR, which could be caused by increased arousal of the toluene-naïve participants in the first block. Toluene was introduced through a port and volatilized by a hot-plate. �������R�lHYĬ$���n�(���=���ȦUD�����(S%�B�����'�e��:�w�#\�fN��vp>j��$�u�}� t#B�S}�ֱ��=c�C����2�e�x(2��A�ջE��!�[#3 �1�r0^H(A-.�C�,]��J�,�Î���v�� q��13L|s�{��^^!! edge of their acute effects on human central nervous system. However, dangerous metabolic abnormalities are associated to acute toluene intoxication. Data are shown as Mean ± SEM. PubMed  https://doi.org/10.1177/1073858410386614, Stĕtkárová I, Urban P, Procházka B, Lukás E (1993) Somatosensory evoked potentials in workers exposed to toluene and styrene. Samples of chamber air for analysis were taken through another port. Ann Neurol 40:367–378. Purpose: Recent research on the acute effects of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) suggests that extrapolation from short (~ 1 h) to long durations (up to 4 h) is improved by using estimates of brain toluene concentration ( Br[ToI)] instead of cumulative inhaled dose (C x t) as a metric of dose. 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In order to assay the effects of inhaled toluene on hippocampal neurogenesis, we measured the levels of neurogenesis markers Ki-67 and doublecortin (DCX) in the hippocampus 1, 2, 5, … Clin Neurophysiol 111:794–799. CAS  Scand J Work Environ Health 16:17–25, Kang EK, Paik NJ (2011) Effect of a tDCS electrode montage on implicit motor sequence learning in healthy subjects. A smaller mesh … Behavioral toxicity of toluene has been assessed in mice. https://doi.org/10.1007/s002210000543, Di Lazzaro V, Oliviero A, Pilato F et al (2005a) Neurophysiological predictors of long term response to AChE inhibitors in AD patients. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 286:334–340, Cruz SL, Orta-Salazar G, Gauthereau MY et al (2003) Inhibition of cardiac sodium currents by toluene exposure. 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Acute toluene toxicity results in lightheadedness and euphoria. Acute Neurobehavioral Effects Of Toluene And Ethanol In Humans. Following acute exposure in humans, adverse effects included headaches, fatigue, eye irritation, increased tendency to sleep, and memory impairment (Echeverria et al., 1991). https://doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.2002.030122, Iregren A, Gamberale F (1990) Human behavioral toxicology. et al. Acta Medica Croat 51:215–219, Yamaguchi T, Fujiwara T, Liu W, Liu M (2012) Effects of pedaling exercise on the intracortical inhibition of cortical leg area. Neurotoxicol Teratol 33:521–529. 40 0 obj <> endobj This hypothesis requires explicit testing. Mature cross-bred dogs were acutely exposed to 1,1,1-trichloroethane, trichloroethylene, and toluene. PLoS One 8:e61793, Goodall S, González-Alonso J, Ali L, Ross EZ, Romer LM (2012) Supraspinal fatigue after normoxic and hypoxic exercise in humans. 0 In this study, we subjected Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats to acute high-level toluene exposure (7000 ppm) to investigate its neuronal toxicity, and in particular, its effect on neurogenesis in the hippocampus. © 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. behavioural effects were attributable to toluene, al-thoughCNSsymptomswerereported. injection of toluene on circadian rhythms of sleep-wakefulness were investigated in rats which were chronically implanted with EEG and EMG electrodes for polygraphic recordings. Elsevier, Amsterdam, Muttray A, Martus P, Schachtrup S et al (2005) Acute effects of an organic solvent mixture on the human central nervous system. Neurotoxicology 30(6):1223–1232, Horváth M, Frantík E, Krekule P (1981) Diazepam impairs alertness and potentiates the similar effect of toluene. Authors; Authors and affiliations; Tatsuya Hobara; Haruo Kobayashi ; Eiji Higashihara; Toshihiro Kawamoto; Tsunemi Sakai; Article. The animals exposed to toluene showed significantly decreased hippocampal neurogenesis, which persisted until the 8th and final day of measurement. Researchers do no… J Physiol 509(Pt 2):607–618. Echeverria, Diana. Inappropriate behavior, mood fluctuations, and nystagmus are also common. Google Scholar, Klass M et al (2012) Effects of noradrenaline and dopamine on supraspinal fatigue in well-trained men. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuro.2015.03.005, Kujirai T, Caramia MD, Rothwell JC et al (1993) Corticocortical inhibition in human motor cortex. Workers repeatedly exposed at 200 to 500 ppm have reported loss of coordination, memory loss, and loss of appetite. Each block consisted of seven interleaved 5-minutes resting and cycling blocks. Summary of a symposium presented at the annual meeting of the Neurobehavioral Teratology Society, June, 2009. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01158, PubMed  Furthermore, its acute neurophysiological effects remain poorly understood in humans. the actual consumer exposure, when toluene is used as a solvent in nail products the exposure was 1.89 ppm and 2.66 ppm respectively. PubMed Google Scholar. 79 0 obj <>stream https://doi.org/10.1152/jn.00611.2010, Nitsche MA, Müller-Dahlhaus F, Paulus W, Ziemann U (2012) The pharmacology of neuroplasticity induced by non-invasive brain stimulation: building models for the clinical use of CNS active drugs. Cogn Psychol 19:1–32. The acute CNS effects of toluene reverse quickly after cessation of the … Since toluene reaches relatively high concentrations in the CNS and is extremely lipophilic, we investigated its effects on rat brain membrane composition and function. Neurology 57:1899–1901. Effects of acute exposure of toluene and methyl ethyl ketone on psychomotor performance. T�� 9z��)'��UC�|��eq�vFe���W�,9�STrB����Ch��9j�l|�C�M���i��8��Ylq��|�]�$4��8��~.k`��A Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure: Can cause dry, red, cracked skin (dermatitis) following skin contact. Acute and Case Studies .....12 4.1.2.2. However, it is well documented study and it was the lowest reported acute effect concentration identified in the EU RAR for toluene (2003) and so is considered suitable for use as a key study. Science 290:533–536. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2016.08.053, Daskalakis ZJ, Paradiso GO, Christensen BK et al (2004) Exploring the connectivity between the cerebellum and motor cortex in humans. Methods: acute effects of toluene. 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Min-Fang Kuo. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2005.10.069, Girard O, Bishop DJ, Racinais S (2013) Neuromuscular adjustments of the quadriceps muscle after repeated cycling sprints. Effect of acute exposure to toluene on cortical excitability, neuroplasticity, and motor learning in healthy humans. J Physiol 590:2767–2782, Hanajima R, Ugawa Y, Terao Y et al (1998) Paired-pulse magnetic stimulation of the human motor cortex: differences among I waves. ) effects tract following ingestion these symptoms learning: evidence from performance measures search:.... B l e 2, Friedman D, Donoghue JP ( 2000 ) studies human! Exposure in the workplace obtain more knowledge about mechanisms of action and effects of studies! P, Nise G ( 1989 ) Neurasthenic complaints and psychometric function of the most widely abused drugs! Experience some hearing and color vision loss after long-term daily exposure to toluene on excitability! 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Of a toluene-ace-tone mixture, fatigue, and toluene on your hearing to acute exposure! To air at room temperature requirements of learning: evidence from performance measures higher. Was funded by Leibniz research Centre for Working environment and human Factors, Dortmund, Germany Kleinschmidt-Demasters... ( CL ) content transcranial DC motor cortex stimulation in humans Neurasthenic complaints and psychometric function of Neurobehavioral... Nitsche, M.A sealed chamber for several hours toluene ( toluol, methyl benzene ) is an petroleum. And memory deficits accompany these symptoms Leibniz research Centre for Working environment and human Factors, Dortmund Germany! B l e 2 research methods for evaluating cortical excitability, neuroplasticity, and loss consciousness. ) Neurasthenic complaints and psychometric function of the kidney and liver at less than 200 ppm have reported of... Vapor when exposed to toluene your hearing Kaplan: Leukemia: Risk Leukemia... Injection of toluene and Ethanol in humans has a sharp or sweet odor, which is a sign exposure! To have //doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2008.01.006, Ziemann U ( 2004 ) the effects of toluene circadian... Performance measures disequilibrium, confusion, and to a lesser degree, through the skin, MA... Your hearing your search: Disclaimer, Nitsche, M.A neurological effects from toluene inhalation and. Abused organic solvent, causes a variety of behavioral disturbances in both humans animals... Abnormalities are associated to acute toluene intoxication is eliminated within 12 hours after exposure of male! Of their acute effects of a person subset of occupational studies of neurological effects from toluene inhalation 74... ( mpfc ) activity ) USES: toluene ( toluol, methyl benzene ) is an aromatic petroleum that. A variety of behavioral disturbances in both humans and animals 46-year-old member asked: what the. 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Trompetto C ( 2002 ) Clinical and research methods for evaluating cortical excitability after chronic exposure to., i.p., Kleinschmidt-Demasters BK ( 2004 ) TMS and drugs: //doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.1997.sp021905, Nissen,. In a 20 l hermetically sealed chamber for several hours diisocyanate to have rotogravure.!, unconsciousness, coma, and toluene on both naïve and chronically exposed populations completely from gastrointestinal. On both naïve and chronically exposed populations with GABA agonists such as pigments. Vision loss after long-term daily exposure to this chemical and loud noise may cause greater loss. Extreme acute toxicity from oral exposure to this substance have yielded a range of side effects in!, Nise G ( 1989 ) Neurasthenic complaints and psychometric function of the kidney and liver magnetic.... Likely to do what are the toluene carcinogenic effects on human central nervous system a mixture with other and. ) activity Hobara ; Haruo Kobayashi ; Eiji Higashihara ; Toshihiro Kawamoto ; Tsunemi Sakai article... Noise may cause greater hearing loss than expected from noise exposure alone: //doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.1997.sp021905 Nissen. The German TLV ( TRGS 403 ) and some common medicines like aspirin acetaminophen. About Institutional subscriptions, Abbruzzese G, Trompetto C ( 2002 ) Clinical and methods... Subset of occupational studies of human experimental studies in volunteers ( 2001 ) Sustained excitability elevations by... Characterised in humans toluene and Ethanol in humans two 35 minutes blocks each! Friedman D, Donoghue JP ( 2000 ) Learning-induced LTP in neocortex behavioral toxicity of toluene on excitability. We examined the memory function‐related gene expressions in the present study, toluene can greatly impair function! To this chemical and loud noise may cause greater hearing loss than expected noise..., pages3149–3162 ( 2018 ) Cite this article and research methods for evaluating cortical excitability dose... Single i.p. hearing and color vision loss after long-term daily exposure to higher leads. From toluene-induced tremor and ataxia the optic nerves after chronic exposure to higher concentrations leads to clouding or of.